IUPAC Name: 2-chloroacetic acid
Source: Formed as a byproduct of water treatment disinfection.
Summary: Chloroacetic acid (CAA) is a member of the haloacetic acids, specifically it is a member of the HAA5 disinfection byproducts. It is a carboxylic acid that was formerly used as a herbicide. It is found in water sources (including drinking water) as a byproduct of disinfection processes such as chlorination during water treatment. The compound is widely used as a building block for other organic compounds. It also has applications as a food additive due to its antimicrobial properties. It is the conjugate acid of chloroacetate. It is soluble in water up to 858,000 mg/L at 25 C and has a density of 1.328 g/mL. Upon decomposition it produces hydrogen chloride and phosgene gas. It is known to be very corrosive. It has a pKa value of 2.87. It is classified by the EPA as a Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAPs). The half-life of chloroacetic acid in the atmosphere (vapor-phase only) is 20 days. A Koc value of 2 indicates that the compound will be highly mobile in soil. This low Koc value also means that it will not adsorb to suspended solids within water.
GHS Hazard Statement: H301, H310, H311, H314, H318, H330, H331, H335, H361, H370, H373, H400, H410, GHS05, GHS06, GHS07, GHS08, GHS09